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The optimum pattern for a shotgun choke is to put 80% of the pellets in a 30" circle. If your average shooting is done at 20 or 30 yards, you will probably find a more "open" choke such as Improved Cylinder will provide you the best pattern. For longer ranges, a "tighter" choke such as Modified or Full may be better for the desired pattern.
A full choke at 30 yards may put 100% of the shot in the 30" circle. Turkey chokes are designed to give an even smaller pattern than a full choke.
Variances from brands of ammunition, load, and shot sizes change the way any choke will pattern at various distances. It is important to pattern each Hastings choke tube with the specific loads to be used. Every shotgun will pattern differently due to several factors including barrel length and shot size.
Steel shot, for several reasons, including less deforming in the barrel, tends to deliver tighter patterns. To shoot a tight pattern with steel shot, a Modified choke constriction will do the job. Full chokes are not necessary with steel shot and may not deliver any tighter pattern with steel shot than a Modified choke. Use a Modified or more open choke when using steel shot.
Unload the firearm before changing the choke tube. Never fire the gun without having the choke tube properly installed in the barrel. Make sure choke tube is tight. All chokes should be firmly tightened with an appropriate wrench. Read your gun’s manufacturers instruction book for safe operation.
Fired chokes tubes are not returnable.